Peripheral Nerve Disorders
Patients come from across the country to be diagnosed and treated for an array of peripheral nerve disorders at the Mischer Neuroscience Institute. More than 100 types of inherited and acquired peripheral nerve disorders have been identified, each with its own characteristic set of symptoms, pattern of development and prognosis.
Causes of acquired peripheral neuropathy include trauma to a nerve, nerve sheath tumors, toxins, autoimmune responses, nutritional deficiencies, alcoholism, kidney disorders, hormonal imbalances, connective tissue disorders, repetitive stress and vascular and metabolic disorders.
Trauma is the most common cause of injury to a nerve, and can cause nerves to be partially or completely severed, crushed, compressed or stretched. Diabetes mellitus is a leading cause of peripheral neuropathy in the United States.
About 60 to 70 percent of people with mild diabetes have mild to severe forms of nervous system damage.
Scope of Service
- Brachial plexus reconstruction
- Birth palsy surgical reconstruction
- Carpal tunnel release
- Femoral nerve injury
- Genitofemoral nerve injury
- Ilioinguinal, iliohypogastric nerve injuries
- Median nerve injury
- Nerve transfer/neurotization
- Obuturator nerve injury
- Pelvic plexus injury
- Peroneal nerve injury
- Pudendal nerve injury
- Radial nerve injury
- Sciatic nerve injury
- Spinal accessory nerve injury
- Suprascapular nerve injury
- Tibial nerve injury
- Ulnar nerve entrapment
- Ulnar nerve injury
A peripheral nerve disorder specialist can use the following tests to identify a nerve disorder:
Electromyography (EMG) involves inserting a fine needle into a muscle to compare the level of electrical activity present when muscles are at rest and when they contract. EMG can help differentiate between muscle and nerve disorders.
Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) testing can precisely measure the degree of damage in larger nerve fibers, revealing whether symptoms are being caused by degeneration of the myelin sheath or the axon.
Nerve biopsy involves removing and examining a sample of nerve tissue, most often in the lower leg.
Skin biopsy offers unique advantages over NCV tests and nerve biopsy. Unlike NCV, it can reveal damage present in smaller fibers; in contrast to conventional nerve biopsy, skin biopsy is less invasive, has fewer side effects and is easier to perform.
Lumbar puncture may be used when immune-mediated polyneuropathies, cryptogenic axonal degeneration polyneuropathies or infections or inflammatory disorders are suspected.
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